The server is unwilling to process the request because its header fields are too large. The request MAY be resubmitted after reducing the size of the request header fields.
It can be used both when the set of request header fields in total is too large, and when a single header field is at fault. In the latter case, the response representation SHOULD specify which header field was too large.
HTTP/1.1 431 Request Header Fields Too Large Content-Type: text/html <html> <head> <title>Request Header Fields Too Large</title> </head> <body> <h1>Request Header Fields Too Large</h1> <p>The "Example" header was too large.</p> </body> </html>
Note that this specification does not define how the origin server identifies the user, nor how it counts requests. For example, an origin server that is limiting request rates can do so based upon counts of requests on a per-resource basis, across the entire server, or even among a set of servers. Likewise, it might identify the user by its authentication credentials, or a stateful cookie.
Responses with the 429 status code MUST NOT be stored by a cache.
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